The Substantive Due Process portion of the Due Process Clause prohibits the federal and state governments from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process. Substantive Due Process protects individual rights from majoritarian actions that exceed the governments authority by finding that the action is not law, and cannot be enforced.
Procedural due process is a portion of the Due Process Clause that states that when the state or federal government acts in such a way as to deny a citizen of a life, liberty, or property interest, the person must first be given and the opportunity to be heard. Procedural Due Process protects the citizenry from a coercive government by ensuring that all valid laws are fair and impartial. Unlike Substantive Due Process, Procedural Due Process cases do not focus on whether a liberty or economic right is being infringed upon.
The 1st part of the Religion Clause is known as the Establishment Clause which states that Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. The Establishment Clause is a limitation placed upon the Congress that forbids it from passing legislation regarding an establishment of religion or other actions that show a preference for or elevate one religion over another.
The 2nd part of the Religion Clause which accompanies the Establishment Clause is known as the Free Exercise Clause which states: “or prohibiting the free exercise thereof”. This part forbids the Congress from interfering into the practice of religion while it also reserves the right of Americans to accept any religious belief and engage in religious rituals. This has been the subject of frequent interpretation by the Supreme Court over the years.